In. , At the first National Chicana Conference held in Houston, Texas in May 1971, over 600 women organized to discuss issues regarding equal access to education, reproductive justice, formation of childcare centers, and more (Smith 2002). They also supported the right of women to control their own bodies and mobilized around the struggle for reproductive rights. 146. It published many articles, some written by the editors, that shaped the course of Chicana feminism. Ester Hernandez, a Chicana artist working early in the movement’s history, is one of the first to utilize the visual power of La Virgen for feminist purposes. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. , In the seminal text “La Chicana”, by Elizabeth Martinez, Martinez writes: "[La Chicana] is oppressed by the forces of racism, imperialism, and sexism.  The concept for the CFMN originated during the National Chicano Issues Conference when a group of attending Chicanas noticed that their concerns were not adequately addressed at the Chicano conference. Additionally, the group Las Chicanas exhibited Venas de la Mujer in 1976. Chicana Feminisms. Being tricultural, monolingual, bilingual or multilingual, speaking a patois, and in a state of perpetual transition, the mestiza faces the dilemma of the mixed breed: which collectivity does the daughter of a dark-skinned mother listen to? Chicana feminists criticized white feminists for only addressing gender oppression in explaining the life circumstances of women. Additionally, NietoGomez regards a feminist to be anyone who fights for the end of women's oppression. Chicana feminists also viewed the white feminist movement as a middle-class movement, while they viewed their struggle as a working-class movement. However, historically the Spaniards had no "sh" in their vocabulary and pronounced it "mexicano" (spelled mexicano), a pronunciation that has been carried into the present. Juanita Ramos and the Latina Lesbian History Project compiled an anthology including tatiana de la tierra's first published poem, "De ambiente", and many oral histories of Latina lesbians called Compañeras: Latina Lesbians (1987). In addition to housing women-owned businesses, the center held multiple art galleries and studio spaces. "Feminist critics are committed to the preservation of Chicano culture, but we know that our culture will not survive marital rape, battering, incest, drug and alcohol abuse, AIDS, and the marginalization of lesbian daughters and gay sons". Former citizens of Mexico living in those territories became US citizens. [...] Within us and within la Cultura Chicana, commonly held beliefs of the white culture attack commonly held beliefs of the Mexican culture, and both attack commonly held beliefs of the indigenous culture. New York: Routledge. Chicana feminist theory evolved as a theory of embodiment and a theory of flesh due to the canonical works of Gloria Anzaldúa and Cherrie Moraga, both of whom identify as queer. Because white feminists were themselves struggling against sexism, building coalitions with them was seen as an alternative strategy for Chicana feminists. The creative writings of Gloria Anzaldúa, Ana Castillo, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Sandra Cisneros, Pat Mora, Cherrie Moraga, Bernice Zamora, and others portray various aspects of Chicana feminism. ), Chicana/Latina education in everyday life: Feminista perspectives on pedagogy and epistemology (pp. Euro-American women combated this with the emergence of waves of feminism; the first wave addressed suffrage, while the second wave of feminism discussed issues of sexuality, public vs. private spheres, reproductive rights, and marital rape.  The group already included Frank Romero, Beto de la Rocha, Gilbert Luján, and Carlos Almaráz. 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